From Thomas Sheehan's THE FIRST COMING:
Under Roman jurisdiction Jesus was scourged with leather straps fitted with pieces of sharp metal and bone--a punishment commonly administered to those condemned to crucifixion. He was then forced to carry a crossbeam, or patibulum, weighing some eighty or ninety pounds, to the place of execution outside the city. He was affixed to the beam and to an upright pole with ropes and nails, and over his head was placed the titulum that gave the reason for his punishment: "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews."
Death usually came in ten or twelve hours, although the Jewish historian Josephus records that some crucifixion victims held on for days. The end came slowly, by exposure, loss of blood, and gradual asphyxiation. The pain and degradation were augmented by blocked circulation and the torment of flies and insects. It is doubtful that any of [Jesus'] closest followers were present...
The date was probably Friday, April 7, in the 30th year of the current reckoning, the 783rd year since the founding of the city of Rome and the 16th since Tiberius Augustus had been declared Caesar Augustus. By the reckoning of the [Jewish] religious establishment, it was the 3,790th year since the creation of the world. Jesus, the carpenter turned prophet, had expected the kingdom of God to come in its fullness very soon, perhaps within his own lifetime. He may have clung to that hope during his final agony. He was crucified around midday. He was dead before dusk.